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Video: Projected Life. What Are Psychological Projections? - Society
2023 Author: Oswald Adamson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 12:13
Our communications with other people are varied and bring us a number of specific emotions. The human psyche is faced with joy, grief, aggression, hatred, love and many other conditions. In order not to harm ourselves with heavy feelings that cause disappointment and pain, we turn on the mechanisms of psychological defense. The purpose of the defense is to maintain an adequate psychological background, normal physical condition. Let's consider one of the types of protection - psychological projections.
Projection is an ancient unconscious means of psychological defense against external overloads and negativity
The projection mechanism is quite simple and has been used by many of us. It can be roughly described as follows: discomfort, shame, anxiety due to one's own behavior and desires - the withdrawal of the unacceptable into the unconscious - an assignment of one's desires, feelings, thoughts to an outsider in order to get rid of one's own discomfort.
This is such a protective mechanism, in which a person judges others by himself, proving his own innocence
Of course, to some extent, projection helps to remove negativity from oneself, but in fact it has a negative impact on a person's life. People who constantly project do not have the ability to criticize themselves, use double standards, are irresponsible (because they transfer responsibility to others), and have a fairly low level of awareness. All this leads to new projections, and negative emotions only increase.
In chronic projection, a person endlessly accuses relatives, friends, acquaintances of meanness, insolvency, criticizes and even insults them. The goal of this pathological behavior is to correct or get rid of what brings negative emotions and stress. An extreme case of projection can be paranoia and other mental disorders, and in an aggressive form.
Forms and types of projections
According to the theory of S. Freud, the types of projections can be classified as follows:
- Attribute projection. A person attributes the motives of his behavior to others. As a rule, these are unacceptable and negative traits of behavior - greed, anger, lies.
- Complementary projection is the opposite of attributive. In this case, a person ascribes certain qualities to himself, rewarding another with their opposite. I am good, you are bad, I am good, you are evil. That is, if a person feels brave, he will perceive others as cowards. And if he is afraid, the environment will be aggressive and threatening.
- Rational projection is a very convenient way to justify your mistakes with the help of others. The person blames others for the fact that something did not work out for him. "I would have been able to finish the work on time if such non-professional employees did not work with me."
- Autistic projection. This is the transfer of your needs and experiences to the outside world. For example, a victim once in an accident will always see his opportunity around. And a person who has experienced treason will see potential traitors in those around him.
In turn, Jean Marie Robin describes 5 forms of projection in gestalt therapy:
- The most peaceful form of projection is mirror projection. In this case, a person sees in the other features that he would like to see in himself, or believes that he has them. “I am a brunette, so I am smarter than blondes. You're a brunette too, so you're smart too. " One-sided format, but harmless and non-aggressive.
- Catharsis projection. In this case, a person needs to get rid of (catharsis = liberation) from some shameful trait of his own, and he attributes it to those around him. “All the people around me are evil and unjust” - no, the person himself is aggressive and asocial, it annoys and worries, you need to get rid of it.
- Additional projection. A very sophisticated look. In this case, the person is looking for something in the environment that can justify his feeling now. “You constantly intimidate me,” - in fact, no one scares, fear is already there and you need to explain it to yourself.
- Creative projection allows you to feel the other person and "think through" subsequent situations, based on experience and real facts. This form of projection is productive and networking. Psychological projections in artistic creation are also interesting and productive. The author often uses the method of projection in order to become what he writes about, to be imbued with his hero, to merge with him. But unlike pathological projection, an adequate perception of oneself remains in the creative form. The author realizes where his hero “ends” and he “begins”, even if in the process the boundaries were erased.
- A pathological projection, on the other hand, breaks any contact. Many mental deviations are associated with such a protective mechanism: paranoia, phobias, mania. The real world is perceived in a distorted form, while a person is confident in his adequate assessment of intentions and in control over his behavior. In pathological projection, responsibility for everything that happens to a person lies exclusively with the surrounding reality. A person seeks to get rid of his own feelings, desires and intentions, shifts the boundaries between himself and the whole world. Instead of participating in his own life, a person sees himself as a victim of circumstances and prefers the role of a passive observer.
Working with projections
Psychological projections are an unconscious mechanism. By what a person projects onto others, you can determine his character traits and feelings. It is extremely important for a person to have the ability to recognize their emotions and feelings. It is then that he will be able to free himself from unnecessary and often traumatic projections. Aware of the boundaries between his feelings and the feelings of others, a person will be able to correctly express them and make others understand what he wants. Otherwise, blaming and suspecting others for what they did not do, the person destroys all contacts and makes people disappointed in him.
The main thing in working with projections is to return your own feelings, sensations, aspirations and desires that are projected onto others. The projection will be considered returned when a person, without shame and remorse, accepts in himself the rejected and exiled.
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