Table of contents:
- The feminist movement has been developing in the world for almost two hundred years, more and more expanding its geography and sphere of influence. However, in Russia, he is still often treated with distrust and apprehension, thanks to the numerous myths spread by opponents of the women's rights movement
- Myth 1. "Feminism is a movement for equal rights for men and women"
- Myth 2. "Feminism ignores the natural differences between women and men"
Video: Feminist Myths. Part 1 - Society
The feminist movement has been developing in the world for almost two hundred years, more and more expanding its geography and sphere of influence. However, in Russia, he is still often treated with distrust and apprehension, thanks to the numerous myths spread by opponents of the women's rights movement
The name "feminism" appeared in 1895 thanks to the Englishwoman Alice Rossi 1, who designated by this term a whole spectrum of socio-political movements, united by the theme of the struggle for the recognition of women as full-fledged citizens with the same rights and freedoms as men. Their representatives included, for example, European and American suffragettes, Marxist feminists, etc.
Today, the feminist movement has millions of supporters from all corners of the globe, including world-famous persons: Meryl Streep 2, Emma Watson 3, Benedict Cumberbatch 4, etc. Like any major social phenomenon, feminism is heterogeneous in structure, there are controversial ones in its history questions and unresolved contradictions.
However, in one aspect, the fem movement seems to be ahead of many other social movements: in the number of fables composed about it by contemporaries for the purpose of "ideological struggle" or simply out of ignorance. As a result, feminism in Russia is something like a hadron collider: everyone has heard of it, but few have any idea what it looks like and why it is needed. Let's try to figure out the most common myths?
Myth 1. "Feminism is a movement for equal rights for men and women"
Feminism, as the name implies, advocates for women's rights, not for their "equality" or "equality" with men. Why is this remark important? The point is that “equal rights” can be achieved not only by adding rights to those who have fewer of them, but also by cutting them off from a privileged group - but what is the benefit of a society in which everyone has no rights?
For example, this misconception is based on the argument that opponents of feminism often cite: "If you want equal rights, go on an equal basis with men to serve in the army." Of course, they do not mean training in the use of weapons, physical and special training in adequate conditions (as is done, for example, in the Israeli army), but that senseless pastime and virtually disenfranchised position in which Russian conscripts find themselves.
There is a substitution of concepts: instead of seeking the transition of military service to a contract basis (by the way, feminists, by the way, most often advocate for this) or to protect conscripts (as activists of the Committee of Soldiers' Mothers 5 do - mothers, not fathers!), Women, those fighting for their rights are offered to undergo discriminatory practices for the sake of mythical "equality".
Feminism was created primarily to support and help women. That is why the “fem-agenda” focuses on solving specifically women's problems, and not on equalizing the position of men and women.
Myth 2. "Feminism ignores the natural differences between women and men"
This thesis is used in one form or another by almost all opponents of feminism. Those tuned in an esoteric way usually mention the mysterious "female and male destiny" 6, adherents of the Abrahamic religions refer to the texts of their sacred books, where the duties of representatives of different sexes are strictly separated from each other 7, lovers of popular science importantly talk about "female" and The “male” brain 8 and the critical influence of sex hormones on the behavior of humans. All these people agree on one thing: they understand biological sex as a determinant of almost all aspects of life - from attitude towards family members to professional self-realization.
Feminism, however, does not at all ignore the difference between the sexes - moreover, it is feminists more often than anyone else who propose to take into account gender differences that are really related to biological factors: for example, the need to support women during a vulnerable period during pregnancy and postpartum recovery, special needs for monthly hygiene, etc. However, from the point of view of the fem discourse, the features not directly related to the genitourinary system - for example, traditionally more interest of boys in technology, and girls in needlework - are not natural, and social foundations 9.
"Masculine" and "feminine" qualities are not embedded in a person by the fact of gender, but are brought up throughout life - and for various reasons quite often do not coincide with the currently accepted gender "standards." In practice, this means that feminists propose to evaluate the capabilities and abilities of people not on the basis of “average” descriptions of “correct” women and men, but in accordance with the real characteristics of each individual person.
From this position, for example, an attempt to divide the “consumer basket” into “male” and “female” 10 looks completely absurd - after all, a particular woman, turning heavy vats of dough at a bakery, may need more food than a particular man who is busy, say, issuing loans in the communication salon.
The list of 456 11 professions prohibited for women looks no less ridiculous: it turns out that an employer can easily hire a puny young man for an aviation mechanic or firefighter, but a physically strong woman must refuse so as not to fall under a flurry of checks.
- Krykova I. V. Feminism: the origin of the concept and its interpretation in modern science // Analytics of cultural studies. 2008. No. 11. P. 65–70. URL: cyberleninka.ru/article/n/feminizm-proishozhdenie-ponyatiya-i-ego-traktovaniya-v-sovremennoy-nauke (date accessed: 30.08.2019).
- Meryl Streep: "I Support Feminism" // Kleo.ru. 14.08.2014. URL: kleo.ru/items/planetarium/meryl_streep_o_feminizme.shtml (date accessed: 30.08.2019).
- Emma Watson for the sake of feminism will leave the acting profession for a year // Lenta.ru. 02/19/16. URL: lenta.ru/news/2016/02/19/emmawatson/ (date accessed: 30.08.2019).
- Benedict Cumberbatch Defends Feminism // BFM.ru. 2018-13-05. URL: bfm.ru/news/384688 (date accessed: 30.08.2019).
- Committee of Soldiers' Mothers of Russia: official site. URL: ksmrus.ru/text/missiya/ (date of access: 30.08.2019).
- Gadetsky O. G. Two laws of the predestination of male and female nature // Personal site of Oleg Gadetsky. URL: gadecky.ru/article/dva-zakona-prednaznacheniya-muzhskoy-i-zhenskoy-prirody (date of access: 30.08.2019).
- Begiyan S. Man and woman // Pravoslavie.ru. 2013-25-12. URL: pravoslavie.ru/66988.html (date of access: 30.08.2019).
- Chernigovskaya T. V. The brain and its gender differences // Psychologos: an encyclopedia of practical psychology. URL: psychologos.ru/articles/view/84021-mozg-i-ego-razlicia-po-polovomu-priznaku-tv-cernigovskaa (date accessed: 30.08.2019).
- Chertykov V. Gender and you: how society constructs sex differences // Newtonew: education as a lifestyle. 05.05.2017. URL: newtonew.com/culture/gender-and-you (date accessed: 30.08.2019).
- Male and female: the consumer was offered to paint according to gender // Gazeta.ru. 2019-31-07. URL: gazeta.ru/business/2019/1254-31-075101.shtml (date accessed: 30.08.2019).
- Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation "On the approval of the list of heavy work and work with harmful or hazardous working conditions, during which the employment of women is prohibited." 02.25.2000. URL: pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&prevDoc=102095194&backlink=1&nd=102064692&rdk=0 (date accessed: 30.08.2019).