Table of contents:
- With the development of civilization, the number of catastrophes is inexorably increasing, and at the same time the number of human casualties and suffering multiplies. How to behave if you are close, become a direct participant in tragic events, or watch what is happening on the TV screen?
- Epicenter of disaster = psychological impasse
- Stress traumatizes the psyche
- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Video: Disaster: The Rules Of Survival - Society
With the development of civilization, the number of catastrophes is inexorably increasing, and at the same time the number of human casualties and suffering multiplies. How to behave if you are close, become a direct participant in tragic events, or watch what is happening on the TV screen?
Epicenter of disaster = psychological impasse
If earlier a person considered such tragedies as a result of the manifestation of the will of the gods, now the first place is taken by negligence or malicious intent, unprofessionalism or unpreparedness of those who were supposed to prevent this or that catastrophe.
Many believe that humanity has reached such a level of development that a catastrophe can not only be prevented, but also significantly minimized its consequences. We have become much more confident that the state will protect us, ensure our security, or reduce the level of our victimogenic vulnerability.
Victimogenic vulnerability is an objective possibility, the ability of any person or community to become a victim of a crime
However, the catastrophes that have happened recently make us doubt this.
Every time a disaster strikes, people are completely unprepared. They do not know how to act in extreme situations and how to overcome their consequences associated with traumatizing the psyche
Both those who were directly at the epicenter of the event and their relatives and friends, as well as just outsiders or observers, find themselves in “psychological dead ends”.
Stress traumatizes the psyche
According to the Social Adjustment Rating Scale of Thomas Holmes and Richard Reich, stress arising from the death of a spouse, spouse, child, mother or father is estimated at 100 points, the death of a close family member - 63, a close friend - 37. Moreover, the maximum amount stress stress throughout the year should not exceed 150 points. With their increase, the likelihood of the formation of mental and psychosomatic disorders, including oncological, infectious, etc., increases.
See also: How to overcome grief after a disaster
Unfortunately, this classification does not take into account the socio-cultural specifics of a particular region, individual personality traits. However, the overall picture looks absolutely ugly.
Affective shock reaction
As a result of the influence of powerful psycho-emotional or physical stress, people who do not have signs of mental illness develop a mental disorder or an affective-shock reaction
Stressors are traumatic experiences that are associated with threats to safety for life or physical, psychological, social integrity of a person and significant loved ones. The duration and complexity of such a reaction depends on the adaptive capabilities and individual vulnerability of a person.
How does an affective shock reaction manifest?
There are sure signs that will help determine this:
- occurs immediately after the action of a stressor or within a few minutes;
- movements are inhibited, stupor or vacuous hyperactivity occurs;
- attention decreases;
- vegetative reactions appear: the skin turns red, sweating increases, heart rate increases, etc.);
- strong affective experiences of terror, despair, rage and anger arise.
This symptomatology continues for several hours if the amplitude of the stressor's action decreases. And if it remains, then from 24 to 48 hours from the moment of its occurrence
When is the help of a psychiatrist needed?
If a person alone or with the help of others (crisis psychologist, social worker) was able to get out of this mental disorder, there are practically no memories of these events. But if signs of the disorder persist, psychiatric help is needed.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
More devastating to humans is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It forms, as a rule, within six months after the action of the stressor. And most importantly, it has a higher level of threat to the safety of life of both the person himself and his close environment.
How does PTSD manifest?
Post-trauma stress disorder can be identified by:
- a person experiences a feeling of oppression, guilt, shame, anger;
- his feelings are dulled;
- there is detachment from people and events;
- the ability to receive pleasure decreases or completely disappears;
- interest in life is lost;
- the victim avoids performing not only functions that are associated with a traumatic situation, but also with previous activities.
When is the help of a psychiatrist needed?
A person's attempts to curb emotions often lead to addiction to psychoactive substances. This can cause anxiety attacks, antisocial affective manifestations, and even suicidal intentions.
The course of the disorder has an undulating character, lasts several years and can lead to radical personality changes.