Table of contents:
- The first step: understanding the problem
- Second step: choosing a strategy
- Step three: practice regularly
Video: 9 Strategies For Improvement - Self-development
Authors: Richard Paul, Linda Elder
(Paul R., Elder L. Critical Thinking in Everyday Life: 9 Strategies)
Translation: Evgeny Volkov, a psychologist, a sociologist, Ph. D.,
associate professor, an expert on the social impact and critical thinking Most of us take their ability to think as a given, without thinking about the fact that "thinking" should be practiced in the same way as in basketball or playing the saxophone. How to become an advanced user of your own thoughts and assessments?
The first step: understanding the problem
You cannot become an excellent thinker simply because you want to. Changing mental habits is a long-term project. First you need to realize that there are serious problems in our thinking. And understand that training is needed.
Second step: choosing a strategy
According to the work of Paul R., Elder L. Critical Thinking in Everyday Life: 9 Strategies, there are 9 strategies that any motivated person can use to become a better thinker. Let's analyze each in detail.
Thinking is not fun, but a duty
Arkady and Boris Strugatsky
First strategy: use "empty" time
All people waste some time - on transport, in line, anywhere. So why not use it to your advantage? For example, you might ask yourself questions like:
- When did I think the worst today?
- When did I do my best thought?
- What was I really thinking about today?
- Did you comprehend anything?
- Have I allowed negative thinking to upset me unnecessarily?
- If I had to repeat today, what would I do differently?
- Have I done anything today that contributes to my long-term goals?
- Have I acted in accordance with my own values?
Second strategy: one problem per day
At the beginning of each day, you need to choose a problem to work on in your free minutes. Parse the logic of the problem sequentially:
- 1. Formulate the question as clearly and precisely as you can.
- 2. Investigate the problem to make it clear its "kind", the degree of your control over it, the potential for its solution.
- 3. Understand what additional information you need for a solution and actively seek it out.
- 4. Analyze and interpret the information, building the most logical and reasonable conclusions.
- 5. Find out your options for action in the short and long term.
- 6. Assess your options for solutions.
- 7. Take a strategic approach to the problem and follow this strategy.
- 8. Control the consequences of your actions as they begin to manifest. Be prepared to revise your strategy at any time.
Third strategy: internalize (internalize) intellectual standards
Each week, show increased attention to one of the intellectual standards (clarity, accuracy, reliability (truth), relevance, depth, breadth, consistency, significance). For example, if you are studying clarity, try to notice when your thoughts are not clear to others. Pay attention to those times when what other people say is not clear. Analyze these situations.
Fourth strategy: keep a special diary
Write a specific number of diary notes each week using a four-part notation format:
- 1. Situation.
- 2. Your reaction.
- 3. Analysis.
- 4. Evaluation and revaluation.
Fifth strategy: rebuild your character
Choose one mental ability for each month - intellectual perseverance, autonomy, empathy, courage, humility, etc. - to make efforts to realize it, focusing on how you can develop this quality in yourself. For example, as you focus on intellectual humility, begin noting when you admit you are wrong and when you refuse to accept it.
Sixth strategy: acknowledge and deal with your self-centeredness
Egocentric thinking is rooted in the property of human nature to interpret everything in our favor. Regularly ponder questions such as “Under what circumstances am I thinking in my favor?” “Have I done or said something“irrational”to insist on my own?" Once you recognize egocentric thinking in action, you can work to replace it with more rational thought. It does this through systematic self-reflection.
Seventh strategy: review and change your way of thinking about things
We live in a world that is both personal and social. Any situation is “determined”, and our actions in it are “predetermined”. However, each thing can be defined in more than one way. This fact carries with it tremendous opportunities. We can:
- 1. Make a list of five to ten recurring negative contexts in which we feel frustrated, angry, unhappy, or anxious.
- 2. Analyze the interpretation that underlies the negative emotion.
- 3. Develop alternative interpretations and plan for new reactions and emotions.
6 Steps to Develop Critical Thinking
- 1. Non-reflective thinker. At the first stage, we are not aware of significant problems in our thinking.
- 2. Puzzled (anxious) thinker. The second stage is the awareness of the problem.
- 3. Novice thinker. We are trying to improve our thinking processes, but there is no regular practice yet.
- 4. A practicing thinker. There comes a point where we recognize the need for regular exercise.
- 5. A well-trained thinker. At the fifth stage, there are obvious improvements in thinking processes in accordance with practice.
- 6. Master. In the final stage, skilled and discerning thinking becomes second nature to us.
Eighth strategy: connect with your emotions
Whenever you feel some kind of negative emotion, ask yourself, "What kind of thinking leads to this emotion?" For example, if you are angry, ask yourself, “What kind of thought makes me angry? In what other ways could I think about this situation? " And if there are such ways - focus on them, switch.
Ninth strategy: analyze group influences on your life
Consider and consider your social identity and what society dictates to you. What do you “have to believe” in a particular group? What are you prohibited from doing? Each group imposes some level of conformity (submission). Most people adjust a huge part of their lives to the image of themselves in the eyes of others. Find out what kind of pressure the real impact is on you, and evaluate whether it is worth rejecting that impact.
Step three: practice regularly
We invite you to become a participant in a personal experiment. Test the ideas that arise in your daily life. Integrate the important ones and build on them based on your experience. Use them every day. It is regular practice that ultimately leads to effective results, making you a "practicing thinker." And gradually critical thinking will turn into a natural process.
Psychology of critical thinking
“Critical thinking is the use of cognitive techniques or strategies that increase the likelihood of getting the desired end result. This definition characterizes thinking as something distinguished by controllability and purposefulness - the type of thinking that is used when solving problems, formulating conclusions, probabilistic assessment and decision-making."