Table of contents:

Developing Talents: When And What Needs To Be Taught To A Child - Society
Developing Talents: When And What Needs To Be Taught To A Child - Society

Video: Developing Talents: When And What Needs To Be Taught To A Child - Society

Video: Developing Talents: When And What Needs To Be Taught To A Child - Society
Video: What is the most important influence on child development | Tom Weisner | TEDxUCLA 2023, March

Recently, many ads have appeared on the Internet advertising services for the development of certain abilities, talents and skills in children. But it is impossible to form a higher mental function earlier than by the time allotted for it by nature.

How to use resources

First you need to decide on such an important concept as the sensitive period. This is a period in the life of every child that favors the development of one or another mental function. At this time, the child learns something easily, masters skills without much effort, does it with pleasure and interest. Sensitive periods last for a certain, fairly short time and are irreversible. In no case should you miss them, because it will be almost impossible to make up for lost time.

Adults should be aware that if children have to do something under duress, not during sensitive periods, the child's psyche and health may suffer. It is impossible to influence the time of occurrence and the duration of sensitive periods, they are determined genetically. Adults can only create favorable conditions for the realization of the inner "life impulses" of children. By the way, if at 7 years old you miss the development and training of mnemonic abilities, alas, a person in adulthood will complain of poor memory.

No complexes

Each age group has its own basic psychological need. For example, an infant has a basic need for security and emotional contact. If the baby was deprived of this, for example, due to being in the baby's house, this is an irreparable loss, the whole process of further development will be distorted.

In the forties of the last century, the American psychologist Rene Spitz described a syndrome in which there was a slowdown and distortion of the development of children as a result of finding them in the unfavorable conditions of boarding schools. The condition was accompanied by severe physical and mental retardation arising in the first years of a child's life due to a lack of communication with close adults. This syndrome is called "hospitalism" from lat. hospitalis - "medical institution".

If something is missing, compensation, subcompensation and decompensation mechanisms are activated. As the development proceeds, unsatisfied basic needs are transformed into deep psychological contradictions - something that they are trying to get rid of and that in everyday life is called complexes.

J. J. Rousseau believed that a child under 12 years old should develop a sensory sensation and perception of the world. This idea makes sense. Research data over the past 100 years supports this claim.

Each age has its own game

Infancy (up to 1 year)

The child is physically separated from the mother, but physiologically related to her. ā€œIā€ and mother are one whole for him. The kid imitates sounds, shows interest in speech. Psychologically, this age is characterized by direct emotional communication with a close adult. It is important to create a sense of security for the child, physical and emotional contact is necessary. Special attention should be paid to the development of cognitive abilities - sight, hearing, touch. They are ahead of motor skills. The emergence of an individual mental life, the separation of "We" and "I" can be considered a successful result.

Early age (1-3 years)

At this age, the most important and fundamental human abilities are laid - cognitive activity, curiosity, self-confidence and trust in other people. Sensitive period for the development of movement and action, fine motor skills. Stringing large beads, playing with pyramids, cutting paper will do. It is worth noting an important nuance: for girls, this period is also characterized by additional leading activities - communication, girls begin to speak faster.

New at this age - the formation of self-awareness, the use of the pronoun "I", pride in achievements. The birth of an autonomous personality with intentions and desires, a tendency towards independent activity, similar to an adult.

Preschool age (3-6 years old)

The game with objects is replaced by a role-playing game, it has the character of modeling social relations. During this time, children learn the norms and rules of behavior in society. Concepts of what is good and what is bad are formed. Particular attention should be paid to the formation of values, joining the game and correcting it, explaining social aspects. This period is sensitive for the development of fine motor skills and imagination. Drawing, modeling, games with a constructor are well suited for this.

The result will be the development of the motivational-need sphere, the formation of values, the overcoming of egocentrism, the development of arbitrariness. A new higher mental function appears - visual-figurative thinking.

School age (6-11 years old)

The basic need at this age is the need for respect. It is important to satisfy it not only for the normal transition to adolescence, but also for the rest of life. At the age of 6, a special situation of development, artificially created by the society, arises - studying at school. This cannot but leave an imprint on mental and physical development.

Biological and sociocultural development are inextricably linked. The most favorable period for the development of thinking, logic and memory is coming. Letting the development of basic cognitive abilities take its course at this moment is fraught with great difficulties not only in learning, but also intellectually. Skill deficiencies can affect the development of many mental functions. A special role should be given to voluntary memory, skills and memorization techniques. It is no coincidence that this age was determined for the start of school activities.

During this time, muscles and body gain strength and stamina. The bones of the skull stop growing, muscles and tendons, along with flexibility and mobility, acquire strength and resistance to static stress. This is necessary for perseverance in the educational process. The development of fine motor skills plays an important role at this age, it contributes to the skills of writing and calligraphy.

Age 5-9 is the most favorable period for starting classes with intense physical activity, such as choreography, gymnastics, figure skating, karate, etc.

Photo: © Oksana Kuzmina / Photobank Lori

Popular by topic